Tuesday, December 29, 2009

baby horses

Baby horses are cute. They are small, with very long legs and tiny little pricked ears, with a beautiful face. After the birth, the baby horses will start learning to stand. Their legs are wobbly at first which makes it difficult for them. Just like human babies, they have to learn to balance themselves when standing. A foal: A baby boy horse. A filly: a baby girl horse. A mare: a grown girl horse. A stallion: a grown boy horse. A gelding: a boy horse that's not a stallion yet. A yearling: a horse that is one year old. Baby horses are playful and usually friendly, (like little human babies.) But baby horses can also be very shy just like some little babies. Baby horses stay by their mothers at first when they are born. But soon, when the babies get older, they are running around the field without their mother right beside them. Horses are mammals, so they have hair and they nurse on their mothers. In the wild, a baby horse will have to learn to stand and keep up with the rest of the herd. The babies have to be tough and ready to run from anything that is danger. They have to be able to survive sicknesses and cold or hot weather. Baby horses need lots of care including training, grooming, feeding, checkups from the vet, and also need to be exercised. Usually when the baby horses are put in the field with their mothers, they will start running with their mothers there. Baby horses spend a lot of time in the field with their mothers.

the horse's age

A horse's age is important to know. The best way to tell a horse's age is by looking at its teeth. Horses usually live to about 23-24 or sometimes to their 30s. Old horses need more food and caring. This is because the older horses are slower and their bodies don't work nearly as well. (Like humans when they're old.) Old horses usually will have to be checked by the vet several times to make sure that the horse isn't sick and is eating properly. Usually old horses get a disease called Colic. This is where the horse is in pain and starts frantically rolling to try to get away from the pain. When this happens, the vet will be needed at once. Old horses should not be ridden. This is because the horses can't carry the weight of a rider anymore and are slower than usual too.

Monday, December 28, 2009

Barrel racing

Barrel racing is most often seen in events such as rodeos. It's all about speed, turning, and trying to not knock the barrel down. At first, the rider races out from a fence, then swirls around the barrels and then goes back into another fence. Barrel racing teaches riders how to do sharp turns and also teaches them speed. Barrel racing can also been seen on ranches. The best horses for barrel racing are quarter horses. Their backs are short, legs are long,there are nice movers, and are great at doing sharp turns especially around barrels. They are also great for events such as rodeos.

Sounds that horses make and moving their body

Horses can make lots of sounds, since they can't talk, they have to tell you things by making sounds and by moving different parts of their body. Soft blowing through the nose means, I like you. A snort can either be relaxed or it can be a warning. A whinny is usually to greet another horse or to say "I am here" if one horse doesn't know where the other is. A neigh is mostly to say hello to a horse or human. A nicker is a soft noise that the horse makes when it's calm or feels safe. Ear movements: Pricking the ears means the horse is curious or alert at what it sees, smells, or hears. Pinning the ears down means that the horse feels threatened or doesn't like something. Putting the ears apart facing the sides of the horse usually means that the horse feels calm or is threatened. Other parts of the body: kicking and biting mean "I am angry." A stomp of the foot and a swish of the tail mean that the horse is annoyed. rearing and neighing mean, "I am scared" or "I am angry." If you learn a horses' language it will learn yours.

Can horses see well?

Horses can't see nearly as well as we can. But they can see more around them. Horses' eyes are on the side of their head, so they can see all around them without turning their heads. Their are two blind spots though, directly behind their tail, and right in front of their nose. So whenever you go up to a horse to pet it, go on the side of the horse where it can see you. If you go behind it and pet it, the horse will kick or startle. This is because horses get scared when they feel someone touching them and they can't see it. They're worried that the thing that is touching them is danger. So always go where the horse can see you when you are going to pet it.

Kids and horses and ponies

Many horses are great with kids and so are ponies. I know that I should probably have a pony before I start learning how to take care of a full sized horse, but instead of trying to be safe, I want to have a horse first. I know a lot about horses and I think I could learn how to take care of one on my own. Anyway, in this post we are going to learn more about first starting to take care of horses and ponies. Okay, we begin. Ponies are great with kids, especially Shetland ponies. They are some of the best ponies because they are easy going and don't need as much space as a horse. They don't need nearly as much food or as much exercise either. This is because ponies are smaller and don't need to run around. They can have a small stable or sometimes if you have a medium sized backyard, they could even live there. Ponies usually eat grass and are smaller so they don't need to be fed nearly as much. Ponies don't get scared easily. Which is why children usually like riding them. They make great friends and companions. Horses are also very good and calm. They are bigger but are still great friends and are great with kids.

Saturday, December 19, 2009

information on the Dutch warm blood horse

the picture above is a dutch warm blood horse. These horses are used in shows and events, such as jumping, dressage, and other things. They are usually black, brown, bay, and white. They are gentle and kind especially around children.

information on the Hanoverian horse

The picture above is a Hanoverian horse. These horses are usually seen black. They can have markings of any kind. They are good at dressage, jumping, and other events. They are kind, intelligent, and very good riding horses.

Friday, December 18, 2009

more information on fresians

This is a beautiful Fresian horse. These are beautiful horses. They are always black. With no markings at all. They have a beautiful curly, long mane and tail. They have long fetlock hair growing on the bottom of their feet. They are very kind and gentle especially to children. Their forelock (the long hair between their ears) is often covering their eyes.
The history of Fresians:

A long time ago, Fresians were once used as war horses. They were great for knights riding out into battle. The knights needed strong, fast horses to be able to ride during battle. Fresians were great! They were beautiful and very powerful. The knights were very glad to have such wonderful horses. Over time, Fresians were no longer used as Knights' horses. They became popular parade horses and are great in dressage, and make great showing horses. Many Fresians are from Holland, and are flown on airplanes and ships to America.

information on the American Belgian draft horse

The picture above is the American Belgian draft horse. These are famous for being able to pull carriages, wagons, and other heavy things. They can be any color, but black, and brown are usually seen. The draft horses are hug, yet very gentle and kind. They don't get scared easily, which makes them very good riding horses and show horses. They have long fetlock hair often growing so long that you can't see the horse's legs!

information on the Connemara

The picture above is a Connemara pony. These are very beautiful and intelligent ponies. They can be any color but brown, bay, black, and white are usually seen. They don't usually have markings. they are great show ponies. They are also great with children and are very gentle and kind.

information on the Dartmoor pony

The picture above is two Dartmoor ponies. This is a rare breed of pony that is endangered. They can be any color. Some of them have been caught and tamed by humans, but some are still allowed to run free. They get their name because they live in the Dartmoor areas. There is not many left in the world.

information on the Welsh pony

The picture above is welsh ponies. These are beautiful ponies related to the cob pony, (look at the post, information on the cob pony, to find out more about cobs.) Welsh ponies can be any color, but bay, brown, white, and gray are usually seen. Welsh ponies are athletic, smart, gentle, and beautiful. They are great for young children who are going to buy their first horse or pony. They are also good show and completion ponies. They can markings of any kind.

information on the Cob pony

The picture above is a "Cob" pony. These are very beautiful and intelligent ponies. They are very kind and gentle. They are usually palomino, brown, bay, and buckskin. They are fast and good show ponies. They can have any sort of marking.

colors of the horse: bay

The picture above is a bay horse. this coloring is often seen. The horses will have a black mane and tail and black or white stockings or sometimes both. The picture above is a bay horse with a black mane and tail and black stockings. On one of the legs, there is black and then white. Bay coloring can be light bay or a darkish brown bay.

information on the American hackney horse

The picture above is a hackney horse. Hackney horses are famous for their unusual trot. They lift their feet very high and trot. People often want them to do it in shows and completions. They hold their tails very high just like Arabians do. To learn more about Arabians, go to the post in the November section that says, information on the Arabian horse. Okay, back to the hackney horse. Hackney horses are great with children. They are usually brown, bay, black, chestnut, dun, and buckskin. They will usually have at least two markings.

Thursday, December 17, 2009

colors of the horse: brown colors

The picture above is a mare and a foal. The mare is a beautiful bayish brown color with black markings. She has black on part of her feet and white below it. Her mane and tail are black and her muzzle is black. The young filly is more of a palomino horse coloring with a black mane and tail, their is a snip between the nostrils, (a small white or pink spot.) Between the eyes there is a star, (The littler white spot on her forehead.) And, the baby has a black spot on its back leg, (it's right above the grass.)

colors of the horse: dapple gray

The picture above is a beautiful dapple gray horse. Dapple gray horses are usually a light gray color, (almost white), with little white spots sprinkled all over the body. They can have markings such as a snip, (a white spot between the nostrils), and white on the legs. Sometimes they can have a bald face, (the face is all white.) Or sometimes they don't have any markings.

colors of the horse: flea bitten gray

The picture above is a horse with the color of "flea bitten gray." This kind of horse color isn't usually seen. The coat is usually white with tiny spots of light gray all over the body. The mane and tail will either be brown or dark gray. The muzzle is usually black.

colors of the horse: bay, reddish chestnuty brown

The picture above is a mother and foal horse. The mare is a reddish brown color with black markings. Her legs have stockings (the black part on her legs), and her mane and tail are black. The young foal by her side, is white with small patches of brown. The foal has a stripe attached to a star, (the thin white line on the foal's head.) Both of these horses are different colors of brown. The mare is a reddish chestnut brown and the foal has patches of a lightish bay color.

colors of the horse: cleverland bay

The picture above is a horse with the coloring of clever land bay. This is usually a dark brown color. It can also be a light chestnut color. Horses that have this coloring always have black markings. They also have a black mane and tail.

colors of the horse: palomino

The picture above is a horse with the coloring of a palomino. Palomino horses are a gold yellowy color. Their mane and tail is white. Usually they will have markings such as, a white spot on their head called a star or a thin line called a stripe on their head, or white spots on their feet called stars and stockings. The picture above shows a palomino horse with socks on its feet, and a thin stripe on its head. It has a lighter mane and tail and the body is a gold yellowy color.

colors of the horse: steel gray

Above shows a steel gray colored horse. This color is not usually seen. It's a darkish black gray color. The picture above is a horse with the coloring of steel gray. The horse has a star on its head, (the little white mark on the head between the eyes.) It has a sock, (the white spot on its back leg.) Steel gray is usually a little lighter than the picture above.

colors of the horse: chestnut

Above shows a chestnut colored horse. This color is a bright reddish brown color. Horses that are this color often have markings, such as socks, (a little bit of white on one of the legs), or a stocking, (just like a sock only there is more white on one of the legs), a star, (a little white spot between the eyes), a blaze or a stripe, (a blaze is a big white spot usually going down to the nostrils), (a stripe is a thin line often going down between the nostrils.) The picture above is a chestnut colored horse with no markings on the leg, on the head there is a star attached to a stripe that is not going down to the nostril.

information on the American Walking Pony

The picture above is the American Walking Pony. These beautiful ponies are great for kids who are getting their first horse or pony. They can be any color, but palomino, brown, and bay are usually seen. The ponies are smart and very kind and gentle especially around children. They are good jumpers, and good show ponies. The picture above is a palomino colored walking pony. It's in good shape and is very healthy.

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

horse face marking: stripe

The picture above is a stripe, (the white line across the horse's face.) Stripes are a common horse face marking. They are usually thin. The stripe can attach to a star, (a small white spot between the horse's eyes), or a snip, (a small white line between the nostrils.)

Tuesday, December 1, 2009

information on the Clydesdale horse

The picture above is a Clydesdale horse. These horses are very kind and gentle. They have sweet and loving personalities. They are usually seen pulling wagons. They are very big, and can be any color, but the most common ones are brown, bay, and black. They are also good in shows and have their mane and tails braided.

information on the American SaddleBred horse

The picture above is two American Saddle Bred horses. These horses are famous for being in shows. They can do the show trot (look at the post:information on the fresian horse) to find out what a show trot is. There are lot's of Saddle Bred shows every year. Many of the kids who ride these horses are handicapped, meaning that they can't walk. They only get off their wheelchairs to ride. These horses love attention and are easy to take care of.

information on the Missouri Fox Trotter horse

The picture above is a Missouri Fox Trotter horse. These horses are known for their steady and smooth gait. It's a trot, as the name suggests. The picture above is a Missouri Fox Trotter horse with the coloring of a palomino horse. Trotters are great with children and have a sweet and kind personality. They are usually palomino, brown, bay, and black. They are easy to take care of and they are a good size for experienced riders.

information on the American Quarter horse

The picture above is an American Quarter horse. American Quarter horses are famous for being the best cow horses. The American Quarter horse is great at driving cows. These horses will run beside the cows with a person on them, while the person does the roping, the Quarter horse will do the driving. The horse will make the cows go to where the person wants them. American Quarter horses are also famous for being in rodeos and racing. They will help their rider drive the cows in a rodeo, and they could probably beat a Thoroughbred in a half mile race! They are usually brown, bay, black, or have palomino coloring. They are good for children who are getting their first horse. They have sweet and kind personalities and are easy to take care of.

Monday, November 30, 2009

information on the Miniature horse

The picture above is a miniature horse. Miniature horses are not ponies. They look like them.....but actually, no. They are small horses. The picture above is a small pinto miniature horse. Miniature horses are great with children. They have sweet calm and playful little horseys. They are easy to take care of and don't cost as much as a full sized horse. They have short little legs for running, their neck is raised high. Their eyes are gentle and soft. Their coat is very soft. They come in all colors. They can live toughly. That means that they can survive without much food and they can survive without little shelter.

information on the Trekhenr horse

The picture above is a Trekhenr horse. These horses have gentle and kind personalities. They are great at jumping, dressage, and many more things. They are usually brown, bay, and black. They have beautiful long legs for running. They have elegant and graceful bodies. Their eyes are gentle and their head is shaped sort of like an oval. In the picture above, the horse is bay, with white socks and a strip. This horse is very healthy and well taken care of.

information on the Standardbred horse

The picture above is a Standard bred horse. These horses are famous for how fast they can run! They are also known for being the best harness racing horses in the world. . They can even beat a thoroughbred to it! They are kind and gentle with a great personality.They can be any color, but bay, brown and black are usually seen. In the picture above this Standard bred is racing in a harness race.

information on the fresian horse

The picture above is a fresian horse. Fresian horses are always black. No other colors are allowed. They are big, but also very kind and gentle animals. They are good at dressage, and many other events. The fresian horse has a beautiful long neck and their body is powerful. At the bottom of their feet their is long fetlock hair. The picture above shows a fresian doing what we call the "show trot". This is a trot that the horse raises its legs up very high and trots. It's often seen in shows and events, which is why it's called a show trot.

information on the Appaloosa horse

The picture above is an Appaloosa horse. Appaloosa horses are beautiful and very gentle. Back a long time ago, the Appaloosa horse was the Indians favorite horse. Indians tamed these horses and rode them. Today, Appaloosa horses are famous for being great cow horses. They are smart and tough and great for cowboys and farmers. They are usually bay, brown, chestnut, and white.

Information on the Andalusian horse

The picture above is an Andalusian horse. Andalusian horses are beautiful, elegant and smart horses. Their forelock (which is the little bit of hair between their ears) is often covering up their eyes. Andalusian horses are great at Dressage and and other events. They can be any color, but black, brown, and bay are usually seen. They are calm and very gentle horses.

information on the Thoroughbred horse

The picture below shows a thoroughbred horse. Thoroughbred horses are famous for racing! They are often seen in races, powering themselves forward. After a while they will retire (not race anymore.) Thoroughbreds can be any color, but chestnut and bay and brown are average. Thoroughbred horses have beautiful faces and elegant bodies. They are one of the fastest horses in the world.

Sunday, November 29, 2009

information on the American Paint horse

This is a picture of an American Paint horse. (Above.) American paint horses are beautiful intelligent and graceful animals. They can be roan, black, or any brown color with large patches of white. They stand from fourteen hands to sixteen hands. They are great riding horses, they are good for beginner riders, and they also make great friends. They are also well suited for Western riding, and are famous cow horses. They are also used in the show ring, and can jump well and are good at halter. They are usually calm and easy to handle and make a good first horse for children.

information on the Arabian horse

This is an Arabian horse. Arabian horses come in all colors but chestnut, brown, bay, and black are the colors that people see the most. The Arabian horse above is chestnut. Arabian horses carry their tails very high and are elegant and graceful animals. They are one of the oldest breeds of horses in the world. They have slightly dished faces and a "tea cup" shaped muzzle. They are known for their graceful gaits and beauty. The history of the Arabian horse. Many people found these horses in the desert and captured them. The horses were soon one of the favorites of many kinds of people. People wanted fast, strong, and smart horses to be able to ride during battle and to travel with. Arabians were just the horses! Soon people were riding their Arabian horses everywhere. People were choosing the best horses to have babies. Arabian horses are tough, they are one of the few kinds who were found wandering in the desert. They can survive hot weather or cold weather. Even as a foal or a baby horse, Arabians are pretty. They start out usually brown, or a grayish white color with tiny spots. If they're are gray, they'll turn white as they get older. If they're brown, they'll get lighter as they grow up. Arabians are great with children and love to see people.


Jumping is fun once you get used to it. At first it's probably scary.......(I can't say so myself because I've never done it before). There is jumping for fun, (most people do that) but there is also show jumping, which you'll often see in shows and events.

This is a Lady named Linda Undernehr. She painted this fabulous picture. It's of a girl jumping. She is my Aunt Julie's friend, (and now she's mine too.) She's an artist with two horses, two kids (I think) that she adopted. Her horse's names are Mindy and Page. I like those names for horses. Nice.

where to get a horse

Okay. Where to get a horse. I suggest looking in magazines and books to get ideas, also look on the internet. But one of the best ideas for where to get a horse is your friends. Ask anyone you know if they know of stores or any other people they know that sell horses. Call any animal places such as, markets selling animals, the animal shelter. Also try and email people if they know any places.

the western saddle

The horn is the thing that is here (below) The seat is the thing you sit on. The girth is at the bottom.

The picture above is a western saddle. It's a smaller one than most. you can see the horn, (the thing that is on the top of the saddle).

getting your first horse

It takes a lot of money to buy a horse, so if you're going to buy one yourself, it'll take a while. When you have enough money and you already know where to buy the horse, you can start. Before buying a horse, you'll need to see the height and age of the horse you're buying. You must see if it's a boy or a girl. It's always important to see the behavior and the kind of horse. You need to make sure that the horse is 100 percent healthy and that it won't have problems carrying you for a long time.

Rugging up, use of a blanket when a horse is suffering from a cold or cough.

Horses are commonly covered with a blanket after they have been clipped for the winter and are not working, or when they are suffering from a cold. Although colds are a common illness among horses, they can develop into pneumonia or a more serious illness,so a veterinarian should be consulted as soon as possible. If a horse is fed regularly and has had enough water and vitamins, it's less likely to get sick.

the western bridle

this bridle is not a western. It's a regular bridle that doesn't have reins attached to it. This bridle is usually on young horses, because it doesn't have a bit and it's comfortable to the horse. I drew this picture.

Western bridles are unusual. Instead of the bit in the horse's mouth, the bit is attached to a different kind of thing that is placed in the horse's mouth. They can be used on any horse, but many people who ride western style put them on. This is a western bridle. (Below). I drew this picture so you could see what it looks like.

saddling up and mounting

Make sure the saddle is the right size and won't cause your horse to get rub marks. Gently swing the saddle onto the horse's back. Then strap it in and tighten the girth. Make sure that your horse is calm and okay with the saddle. Be careful, because some horses take a deep breath when your saddling them and they make the saddle loose, so tighten it again if necessary.

Mounting. Before you mount the horse make sure that the girth is tighten enough. Always get on from the left side of the horse (because it's easier). Put your left leg in the sturup, then shift your weight and swing your right leg onto the horse's other side. To get used to being in the saddle, shift back 'in forth to learn what it's like to be on the horse when it's moving.

stabled horses

Make sure that you choose the best well built stable for the horse. Some are close to barns (which can start a fire in the stables). The horses need to have enough room to move around (to be able to turn around) if they want to. They are most likely to stand up sleeping but sometimes if they feel completely safe they'll lye down. they'll need food and water placed either on the ground or on a shelf where the horse can reach it. The food and water will need to be changed at least 3 times a day. Groom the horse regularly and in the winter put a blanket on them. Some horses get winter coats that are warmer and heavier, so they stay warm. Turn the heater on in the barn so the water doesn't freeze. Also have the farrier come by and put the horse's winter shoes on. Feed the horses more food so they keep up their energy. Sometimes you can put things that are like socks on the horse's feet so they don't get cold.

field horses

Keeping horses in a field isn't the best place. If the horse over eats it could die. But usually a field is good. You just have to make sure that they don't eat too much. They will eat grass and twigs and usually if they come across them. You'll need to make sure that there are no poisonous plants in the field, such as acorns, and different kinds of flowers. You can put hay by the fence or in the middle of the field where the horses are likely to see it. The best place to keep a horse is in a fence with dirt.

Saturday, November 28, 2009

braiding the mane and tail

Usually you'll only braid the mane and tail if it's for an event or show, since it takes a few minutes.
Do it as if you were braiding your own hair. When doing the tail it can be more hard because you'll have to get directly behind the horse. You'll need to have someone holding the horses reins in front and someone on the side to calm the horse. Don't be afraid to pull the mane a bit if you need to, because it won't hurt the horse.

the importance of grooming

Grooming requires a comb and a brush. Use the comb for the mane and tail, and the brush for the coat. Gently pat the horse before started to groom him, to calm him down. Start with the croup, (or the back part of the horse). Rub it gently with the brush and move on to the back, when the horse seems to be calm with it, you can start moving it up to the neck. Do the neck for a second and go back to the croup to make sure that your horse is okay with it. Gently work your way down to the legs and then go back up to the neck. You need to wait a minute before doing the face and head, so just keep on doing the neck, croup, and back. After a few minutes, you can start gently grooming the head and face.

hoof care

Hoof care, cleaning out the hoof. The feet of the horse need to be inspected and cleaned daily;without such care, he might become lame, (can't walk or stand). When picking up the front and back feet, rear of the horse. Lean against the horse's shoulder to shift his weight to the opposite side and run your hand down the tendon to the fetlock and pull up the hair. Cup the hoof in one hand while you use the hoof-pick to clean the sole and frog carefully.Although you should the feet at night to remove any stones or pebbles the might have picked up during the day, clean out the hooves in the morning; the earth picked up when the horse is out helps keep the frog and sole moist. Applying hoof oil daily (inset) helps to prevent cracks and keeps the hooves healthy.

Shoeing a horse. The farrier is the person who shoes a horse and get's the old shoes off. Call the farrier every few weeks to shoe your horse. If the farrier is good, it will cost 75 dollars for the horse to get shoes. In winter, also call the farrier and have him put the winter shoes on the horse. While the farrier does his work, hold onto the horse or its halter.

training a young horse

A foal's training begins almost from the moment of its birth with special handling- petting him, talking to him, leading him with the halter. Concentrated training, however does not begin until the horse is two or three years old. By this time the horse should be familiar with its trainer and used to obeying simple commands from the halter. Concentrated training begins with the lung reins and cavesson (a special head piece with rings for the lung rein).

information on food and feeding

Because a horse's stomach is small in proportion to its body, it should be fed relatively small amounts often rather then large amounts only once or twice a day. The amount and type of food a horse needs depends on its size and the kind of work it does. Horse food falls into two categories: bulk food (grass or hay) and concentrates (grain such as oats, corn, barley and bran). Concentrated foods supplement the horse's diet of bulk food, providing additional protein and vitamins as necessary. Once you've determined the combination of bulk and concentrated food that is correct for your horse, it is also important to establish and maintain a feeding schedule. Remember that most horses feed better at night, and so should receive the greatest portion of food at last feed of the day.
I researched this information from a horse lap book that I made. (So its all true).

how to ride

Riding is fun. I'll tell you how to do it. Getting the horse to go is easy, you gently press your leg against the horses side. Warning: don't kick a horse's side or it will take off running. To get a horse to stop pull back on the reins. If you keep pulling back they'll back up. To go right pull right. To go left pull left on reins. Don't be sitting sloppy like you're tired. Sit straight up in the saddle and get a good grip on the reins. Don't put your leg against the horse's neck because it feels uncomfortable to them. Now let's talk about speed. If you slightly squeeze on the horse's side it will walk. If you squeeze more, it will do a trot (a faster gait that is bumpy.) If you squeeze more the horse will do a canter (a relaxing gait that is faster.) If you squeeze really hard the horse will gallop (a gallop is a horse's fastest gait.) When a horse gallops all four feet come off the ground together. Lean forward to encourage your horse to keep its pace at the gallop.

get that bridle on!

How to bridle a horse: First, make sure the bridle is the right size, then hold the bit next to the horse's mouth. Put one of your hands on his muzzle, so he doesn't get nervous, then carefully slip the bit into his mouth. Put the head piece on him and strap it in. Now you've got the bridle on!
This horse's bridle has been put on. The bit is in his mouth and the head piece is strapped in well.